READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The Green Revolution in China
A couple of weeks ago, China’s highest government body published their conclusions from the second research session on continental climate change over a period of twelve months. Due to China’s new global role and the number of unprecedented environmental issues in China, the Chinese prime minister was very keen to raise climate change as an important issue at the upcoming G8 summit in Hokkaido, Japan.
It should be highlighted that the Chinese central government also had a similar meeting and that China is a rapidly industrializing country with new coal-fueled power plants opening every week. China is like a terrifying carbon-guzzling monster. As a result of thirty years of industrialization, China now has the highest level of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. Carbon dioxide emissions are increasing up to eight per cent a year. The EU achieved a twenty per cent reduction, but China’s emission rate was twice as much approaching the 2010 IPCC deadline for carbon dioxide emissions reduction.
However, it could be misleading to put too much emphasis on these statistics. A non-governmental organization (Climate Group) newspaper report presents a slightly different picture. According to the Clean Revolution in China, China is a nation that is more than aware of its environmental issues but also has the potential to achieve a second miracle in 30 years.
The environmental price of the first “miracle” was that Chinese people always saw their daily lives. That’s why most of the policies are related to energy efficiency, energy-saving and other alternative energy sources. Those policies have already been met with some concern.
Whilst the personal sectors are so strong and developing, they are able to aid the central government to introduce laws, like the National Renewable Energy Law in 2006. This has set hard targets, including increasing the amount of energy made from new renewable sources from eight per cent to fifteen per cent until 2020. Also, it has guaranteed at least three per cent of renewable energy sources, such as biomass, solar and wind.
Both wind and solar power are so successful, but their origins are very different. With 6 gigawatts of energy made from wind turbines, surprisingly China is now ranked behind Germany, the US, Spain and India. Also, some believe China will reach 100 GW by 2020.
Wind power successfully shows that with central government aid China is ready for new policies, subsidies and advanced technology. This situation also has a role in the domestic market. The amount of electricity produced by wind farms can be a burden to fund.
Even though western countries invented an open marketplace set to dominate in China, there were few domestic incentives for solar power. In the global solar photovoltaic cell market, it is second only to Japan and growing fast. In China, the solar market has been a small business, because the cells are so expensive. This puts pressure on the government to rapidly follow up on their policies, for example, the role of the Climate Group is important in developing domestic markets.
However, the image of new coal-fueled power stations still looms large as they are opening every week. It is hard to imagine that China has achieved a 10.5 per cent of growth rate without such stations in the last quarter. However, how many people actually know that China has been closing its small power stations over the last couple of years? Step by step China is reducing its small power stations, first the 50-megawatt ones then the 100-megawatt ones and next will be the 300-megawatt power stations.
This policy is operated by the Chinese central government and backs up the new generation of coal station using the most advanced technologies with supercritical and ultra-supercritical improved clean coal. Capture functions and plants of carbon are researched and developed, but advanced thinking for the future is based on the technology of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that turn coal materials into synthetic gas to make power.
These days, Chinese consumers demand better homes and vehicles. Public awareness of energy-saving is on the rise. The Chinese government introduced a standard fuel economy for vehicles in 2004 of 15.6 kilometers per litre. This is higher than the US, Canada and Australia but behind Europe and Japan. In the meantime, in spite of a high 20 per cent tax on SUVs (Sport Utility Vehicles), the sale of these sorts of cars continues to increase.
Up to now, China has been the kingdom of the bicycle, importing the electric bike at 1,500 yuan ($220) per vehicle. Some of these vehicles have adopted an intelligent recovery system similar to that of hybrid cars. In 2007, the sale of electric bikes increased considerably and China is estimated to make up three-quarters of the world electric vehicle market.
China, already, is doing a lot on the bottom line. So, could it do more? The answer is yes, China should learn and open its mind through international communities. According to the Climate Group, they report the world should refine their image of China, just not fear it and, constructively, work in unison. At the same time, China’s government should develop a clean revolution and maintain internal pressure for improvements.
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
1 The Central Government of China concluded the second research scheme of climate change is less than one year.
2 The main topic of the G8 Meeting in Japan was to discuss greenhouse gas emissions.
3 The Chinese Government must compensate the European Union for loss of climate change.
4 NGO’s group reported about the truth of problems of a climate change in China.
5 Solar energy has increased the amount of energy.
6 With different launching, both wind and solar power are inefficient.
7 The high cost of cells causes less activity in the solar market in China.
Complete the sentences.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
8 China is emitting ………………………… of the so outstanding rates in the world.
9 Statistics that can be misleading have been corrected by a …………………………
10 In 2006 ………………………. has set a hard target, waxing the amount of renewable sources.
11 What including the amount of sources which are renewable is like …………………………
12 Wind energy is based on subsidies, policies and the equitable ……………………….
13 …………………….. should support to develop the domestic market in China facing financial problems.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-28 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
The Efficacy of Hypnotherapy
In the 1840s Scottish neurosurgeon, James Braid coined ‘Hypnotherapy’. At that time, in India, British surgeon, James Esdaile, practiced hundreds of scrotal and abdominal operations, adopting hypnosis as the only anaesthetic. It was unfortunate timing that he reported his research dissertation on hypnosis to London Royal Society just as chemical anaesthetics were discovered. The technique was not agreed on by the medical establishment.
These days, whilst an increasing number of people are asking about private practitioners, the level of studies within the hypnotherapy field is meaningful enough that it remains on the fringes of medicine. In a report on alternative and complementary medicine in 2000, the Science and Technology Committee of the UK’s House of Lords has given hypnosis a bad reputation by putting it in the “poor research/regulation” category. In other words, the therapies were unlikely to enter mainstream medicine without substantial changes.
If you research the PubMed database using the term “hypnotherapy,” you find 11,518 hit-words, so there are plenty of studies out there. However, most of the researchers are not satisfied with the gold standard of a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) instead of taking the frame of reviews or case studies. Only 91 relevant RCTs conducted in the world have worked in the past four years. The researchers propose that hypnotherapy can be an effective treatment for pain control, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety disorders and smoking cessation.
There is clear evidence that hypnosis has psychological and physiological effects. That’s why Peter Whorwell at the University of Manchester has researched the efficacy of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) surgery for gastrointestinal modulation with hypnotherapy and possible immune function support. But even though IBS is one of the best-covered areas, the action with mechanism is not clear and the Cochrane Collaboration from assessing clinical trials has criticised the size and quality of the studies.
In spite of the evidence that hypnotherapy reduces pain, anxiety and stress, there are a couple of reasons why few trials have been done. From these stages, hypnosis’s usage doesn’t aid its image. Also, it has the same problems as other “talking” therapies. Alternative funding should be built up, as the drug companies do not benefit from funding expensive studies.
But, one of the biggest obstacles to hypnosis being considered on a more scientific basis is the therapists themselves. Its effects are a result of a unique interaction between the practitioner and the patient. The expectation is similar to that of a drug and therefore should follow the same trial testing criteria. However, this argument is not helpful.
I strongly believe that whilst meeting with a living, breathing person, it is hard to decrease the process of clinical hypnosis and to receive YES or NO responses that are able to be reliably repeated in other conditions. However, for hypnosis to be considered medical, it should be measurable, replicable and vigorous. Actually, we need to model a body of clinical evidence in order to adapt to the medical profession.
With standardising protocol used, we demand quantitative measures of the effects on the patient, so studies can be compared. Ideally, researchers would have access to state-of-the-art brain scanning equipment. In reality, we are able to get simple biochemical markets of hypnosis and after-effects under suitable usage.
Coming out of such studies in England, Ursula James founded the Medical School Hypnosis Association with her colleagues. According to Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, she explains schemes to bring medical professors and students together with hypnotherapists to operate coordinated national trials and build up a large body of evidence from research replicated at multiple locations. Most of all, one of the first questions is whether clinical hypnosis is able to decrease stress. That is an important component potentially in an illness. We work towards using standardised questionnaires to calculate lifestyle, stress and depression and to measure various stress hormone levels in saliva samples taken from case applicants.
If we are able to present that there is a decrease in stress, we hope that hypnosis will be supplied to patients to treat their condition. With a wide range of usages, it could open up study into other areas including decreasing the thoughts of pain and improving recovery times.
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 14-16 on your answer sheet.
14 According to information in the text, hypnotherapy
A was created by British surgeon James Esdaile in 1840.
B has already been used during an operation by James Braid.
C originated from the work of Scottish neurosurgeon James Braid in the 1840s.
D was created by James Esdaile and James Braid in the 1840s.
15 According to information in the text, the recent perception on hypnotherapy among private practitioners
A maintains plenty of research within alternative medicine.
B is on the fringes of mainstream medicine because there hasn’t been enough research.
C means there is a neutral attitude within alternative medicine.
D demands non-practical, but has potential.
16 According to a randomised controlled trial (RCT), hypnotherapy
A works in a variety of cases.
B supplied research and development in advance.
C works in cold.
D was found to be an antidote against irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Complete the summary.
Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 17-21 on your answer sheet.
To show evidence of hypnosis, researchers have proved physiological and 17……………………….. as well. They discovered that hypnotherapy presumes to assist modulate gastrointestinal and immune function whilst operated 18………………………. The mechanism of action is not justified, also, what assesses clinical trials, the 19 ……………………….. has underestimated the value and scale of studies. Despite having several effects, drug companies deny the therapy due to 20……………………… it should be demanded as a substitute investment. However, an outstanding barrier is 21…………………………
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 22 and 23 on your answer sheet.
22 How many relevant RCTs were there in the past four years?
23 Who reported that hypnotherapy aids gastrointestinal modulation and supports immune function?
Look at the following people and the list of statements below.
Match each name with the correct statement.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
24 James Braid
25 James Esdaile
26 Peter Whorwell
27 Ursula James
List of Statements
A founded the Medical School Hypnosis Association.
B discovered hypnotherapy suppose to aid gastrointestinal modulation and support immune function.
C created a new term, hypnotherapy, in the 1840s.
D implemented over several hundred abdominal and scrotal operations.
E criticised the quality and size of hypnotherapy.
Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 28 on your answer sheet.
Which of the following statements best describes the writer’s main purpose in Reading Passage 2?
A to inform the reader relative not to mimic during operating of hypnotherapy
B to encourage the reader to act against misinformation regarding hypnotherapy
C to make the reader spread the right perception of hypnotherapy
D to make readers encourage a randomised controlled trial (RCT)
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
The Well-being Life
Going back to the 1970s, few people listened to scientists’ warnings of global warming. It got worse as nobody was interested in curbing economic growth to protect the environment. Nowadays, we are more cautious. We are hearing about the conflict between living on the earth and expanding the demands of the global market.
However, Tim Jackson reports that people and governments claim the growth agenda to ensure our future and are still in denial of the conflict. A reason for this is the presumption that support for the green campaigners will ultimately make our lives worse.
All representations of a pleasant and easy life which aspire to come from advertising do not help. Also, our happiness is dependent on consuming more and more “material.” We have never listened to ways of escaping stress, noise, congestion, and the ill-health that comes from our “high” standard of living.
Actually, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that a workaholic mentality and an affluent lifestyle does not give us a pleasant life and that switching to a more sustainable community to work could make us happier. For instance, rates of depression and occupational illness have been indicated to be relative to the number of hours we are working. Once a certain income level is reached, more wealth is not linked with growing happiness.
The unreasonableness of our situation can be explained by the way in which our economy tries to sell us happiness. For example, leisure and tourism companies sell customers “a good quality time,” catering services offer us “home cooking,” dating agencies sell relationships; the sports centre sells health and as a result of modern car culture it can be unsafe to walk outside. With the economy steadily expanding, consumer culture is becoming more and more reliant on our desire to adopt this lifestyle.
An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that there is more to life than work and money. Troubled by the effects of a stressful life, people are starting to make their lives more simple and rethinking their values and desires. If people were to switch to a less work-intensive economy, it would decrease the rate of people, products and information delivered, reducing carbon emissions and the use of resources.
There are a number of advantages to making sacrifices to our lifestyles. We would be able to have more time for ourselves and our families. We would commute less and enjoy healthier ways of travelling such as walking, cycling, and riding a boat. Large supermarket chains would be replaced by local family businesses resulting in the creation of more communal town centres. Our local areas would become more tranquil and give us more chance to reflect on things. These changed ideas for a “good life” might also motivate less developed countries to reconsider their goals, enabling them to avoid some of the less attractive aspects of the current system.
Of course, we must sacrifice some conveniences and pleasure such as regular steaks, hot tubs, luxury cosmetics and easy foreign travel. But constant comfort can blunt as well as satisfy our desires. And human ingenuity will invent a wide range of eco-friendly excitement.
Moving into a safe-state economy is an intimidating prospect. However, Herman Daly explains it is unrealistic to continue with current rates of development in production, work and material consumption over the next decades, let alone into the next century.
Under the financial disorders and broad cynicism over government commitments to global warming, more honesty would win cooperation and esteem from the voter, especially if politicians emphasise the advantages of the sustainable society.
Reading Passage 3 has ten paragraphs, A-J.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 29-34 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i A lot of proof of non-well-being
ii Recent perceptional change of the environment
iii Reviving time for private time
iv Understanding of being valuable
v The absurdity of our lives from the feature of the economy benefit
vi Right attitude for constant comfort and human ingenuity
vii People and governments that continue to disagree
viii Aspiring to the material civilisation
Paragraph A ii
29 Paragraph B
30 Paragraph C
31 Paragraph D
32 Paragraph E
33 Paragraph F
34 Paragraph G
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
35 Most people have concentrated on global warming since 1970.
36 Tim Jackson discusses a conflict of opinions between people and governments.
37 Work and material are relative to pleasant and favorable lives recently.
38 Level of income is vital for building up substantial happiness.
39 With a less work-intensive economy, it would decrease only the rate of carbon emissions.
40 Herman Daly indicates current rates of natural resources are enlarged for a sustainable society.
3. NOT GIVEN
5. NOT GIVEN
8. carbon dioxide
10. Renewable Energy Law
11. solar, wind, biomass
13. The Climate Group
17. psychological effects
19. Cochrane Collaboration
20. expensive studies
21. therapists themselves
23. Peter Whorwell
40. NOT GIVEN