1. to have access to public transport
Meaning: the right or opportunity to use public transportation
Example: Many people who live in rural areas have no access to publictransport and have to rely on private cars or taxis.
2. to upgrade and expand public transport provision
Meaning: to improve bus and train services and to make these services more available
Example: One way to reduce traffic on the roads is to upgrade and expand public transport provision.
3. to invest in transport infrastructure
Meaning: to spend money on improving roads, railway lines, train and bus stations
Example: Governments must invest in transport infrastructure to make journeys by road and rail safer.
4. an integrated transport system
Meaning: a system of timetables so that bus and train services are connected and work together successfully
Example: An integrated transport system would make it convenient for people to change buses and trains to complete their journeys without long waiting times.
5. a light rail transit system
Meaning: a system of electric trains, like a metro, running on lines in cities.
Example: Many large cities, such as Hong Kong, have had a light rail transit system for many years.
6. free bus/train passes
Meaning: documents which allow you to travel free on buses or trains
Example: Issuing free bus and train passes to children and the elderly would encourage more people to use public transport.
7. aseason ticket
Meaning: a ticket that you can use many times within a particular period, for example on a regular train or bus journey, and that costs less than paying separately each time
Example: Cheap season tickets would encourage commuters to use buses or trains regularly.
8. dedicated bus lanes/cycle lanes
Meaning: a section of a road, indicated by white lanes that only buses or cycles are allowed to use.
Example: City authorities should create dedicated bus lanes and cycle lanes to encourage people to take public transport or to cycle in cities. Dịch đại ý
9. to speed up journey times
Meaning: to reduce the amount of time spent travelling
Example: The creation of dedicated bus lanes would speed up journey times and encourage more people to use bus services.
10. rush hour traffic jams
Meaning: the time when most people are travelling to or from work/school and so there is too much traffic on the roads.
Example: If factories and offices introduced flexible working hours, this would help employees to avoid rush hour traffic jams to get to or from their place of work.
11. park and ride
Meaning: a system designed to reduce traffic in towns, in which people park their cars on the edge of a town and then take a special bus or train to the town centre
Example: A park and ride scheme would be very effective in reducing the number of cars in city centres.
12. to subsidize the cost of fares
Meaning: to give money to a business or organization to help to pay for the cost of using public transport
Example: Governments must subsidize the cost of fares on public transport.
13. to ease traffic flow
Meaning: to enable traffic to move more easily
Example: The introduction of bus and cycle lanes would help to ease traffic flow in city centres.
14. commuting times
Meaning: the time taken travelling to and from work
Example: Firms should introduce flexible working hours to cut the commuting times of employees.
15. off-peak travel
Meaning: travel at times when fewer people are using public transport
Example: Cheap fares should be introduced for off-peak travel.
16. to grind to a halt
Meaning: to go slower and then stop completely
Example: In my city, Paris, traffic regularly grinds to a halt during the rush hour.
17. congestion charge
Meaning: an amount of money that people have to pay for driving their cars into the centre of some cities, as a way of stopping the city centre from becoming too full of traffic
Example: More cities should follow the example of London and introduce a congestion charge in order to ease traffic flow in the city centre.
18. a traffic warden
Meaning: a person whose job is to check that people do not park their cars in the wrong place or for longer than is allowed
Example: More traffic wardens should be appointed to ensure that cars are parked only in permitted areas.
19. road safety measures
Meaning: actions to ensure that the roads are made safer
Example: The number of deaths on the roads would be reduced if the authorities introduced stricter road safety measures.
20. to conduct regular vehicle inspections
Meaning: to inspect all cars, buses and trucks at regular intervals to check that they are in good condition and safe to drive
Example: Every town and city should have centres which conduct regular vehicle inspections.
21. to install speed cameras
Meaning: to put cameras on certain roads to check that cars are obeying the speed limits.
Example: Local authorities must instal speed cameras near all schools and hospitals to limit the speed at which vehicles are allowed to travel.
22. traffic calming
Meaning: building raised areas on roads, as a way of making cars go more slowly
Example: Traffic calming meaures in towns and cities would make the roads safer for pedestrians and cyclists.
23. driving while intoxicated
Meaning: the crime of driving a vehicle after drinking too much alcohol
Example: Driving while intoxicated is a serious crime, and those who drive while under the influence of drink must be severely punished.
24. to raise petrol prices
Meaning: to increase the price which people pay for petrol
Example: Raising petrol prices would not be an effective method of reducing the amount of traffic on the roads.
25. to be punctual
Meaning: to arrive at the correct time
Example: In order to attract more people to use public transport, it is essential that it is clean, reliable, safe and punctual.
26. freight services
Meaning: the system of transporting goods
Example: Railways must provide more freight services in order to reduce the number of trucks on the roads.
27. a tachograph
Meaning: a device used to measure the speed of trucks and to record the times when a driver has stopped to rest
Example: In the interests of road safety, tachographs should be installed in all trucks to ensure that long-distance drivers are taking regular rest periods.
28. roll-on roll-off ferries
Meaning: ships designed so that you can simply drive a car on and off the ship
Example: Many motorists use roll-on roll-off ferries to take their cars overseas.
29. economy airlines/budget airlines
Meaning: companies which offer cheap flights
Example: Budget airlines have made it affordable for people to go on holiday or to visit relatives in other countries.
30. online booking
Meaning: the action of buying a ticket on the internet in order to travel somewhere
Example: Long-distance bus and train services are now more convenient to use, as a result of their online booking facilities which enable travellers to reserve and pay for their tickets from home or from work.