In the previous post, we have learnt a wide range of academic collocations about Crime. Today, I am going to show you the next topic that is about the Environment.
IELTS Writing Vocabulary: Environment
biodiversity – the variety of plants and animals in a particular place
deforestation – the cutting down of trees in a large area, or the destruction of forests by people
ecosystem – all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment
emission – the act of sending out gas, heat, light, etc.
erosion – the fact of soil, stone, etc. being gradually damaged and removed by the waves, rain, or wind
exhaust – the waste gas from an engine, especially a car’s, or the pipe the gas flows through
food chain – a series of living things in which each group eats organisms from the group lower than itself in the series
fumes – strong, unpleasant, and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke
impact – the effect or influence
pollutant – a substance that pollutes something, especially water or the atmosphere
refuse – rubbish; matter thrown away or rejected as worthless;
achievable – a task, ambition, etc. that is one that is possible to achieve
advantageous – useful
at risk – in a dangerous situation
chronic – (esp. of a disease or something bad) continuing for a long time
conceivable – possible to imagine or to believe
devastating – causing a lot of damage or destruction
environmentally friendly – not harmful to the environment
fruitless – unsuccessful or not productive
futile – achieving no result; not effective
immune – unaffected; protected from or unable to be influenced by something.
impracticable – (of a course of action) impossible in practice to do or carry out.
improbable – not likely to happen or be true
irreparable – impossible to repair or make right again
irreplaceable – too special, valuable, or unusual to be replaced by anything else
irreversible – not possible to change; impossible to return to a previous condition
liable – legally responsible for the cost of something
pervasive – present or noticeable in every part of a thing or place
pointless – having no useful purpose
pristine – original and pure; not spoiled or worn from use
questionable – not certain, or wrong in some way
sustainable – causing little or no damage to the environment
taxing – challenging; needing too much effort
unattainable – not able to be achieved
unlikely – not probable or likely to happen
unprecedented – never having happened or existed in the past
worthwhile – useful, important, or good enough to be a suitable reward for the money or time spent or the effort made
confront – to face, meet, or deal with a difficult situation or person
contaminate – to make something less pure or make it poisonous
dispose of something – to get rid of something; throw out or destroy
inexorable – a process that cannot be stopped
inevitable – certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented
toll – suffering, deaths, or damage
quest – a long search for something that is difficult to find
insurmountable – (especially of a problem or a difficulty) so great that it cannot be dealt with successfully
insoluble – (of a problem) so difficult that it is impossible to solve
omnipresent – present or having an effect everywhere at the same time
shred – to cut or tear something roughly into thin strips – burrow – a hole dug in the ground that an animal, such as a rabbit, lives in
den – the home of particular types of wild animal
ecology – the relationship of living things to their environment
evolution – the way in which living things change and develop over millions of years
extinction – a situation in which something no longer exists
fauna – all the animals of a particular area or period of time
flora – all the plants of a particular place or from a particular time in history
habitat – the place where a plant or animal lives
human nature – the behaviour and feelings common to most people
Mother Nature – the nature, esp. when it is thought of as a force that affects people and the world
predator – an animal that hunts, kills, and eats other animals
prey – an animal that is hunted by another animal
repercussion – negative effect
scent – a pleasant natural smell
vegetation – plants in general, or the plants that are found in a particular area
vermin – small animals and insects that can be harmful
disastrous – extremely bad or unsuccessful
domesticated – brought under human control
endangered – at risk or in danger of dying out completely
extinct – not now existing
vulnerable – able to be easily hurt, influenced, or attacked
adapt – to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation
combat – to try to stop something unpleasant or harmful
eradicate – to get rid of completely or destroy something bad
hibernate – to spend the winter sleeping
tolerate – to bear something unpleasant or annoying
twig – a small, thin branch of a tree or bush, esp. one removed from the tree or bush and without any leaves
coat – the hair, wool, or fur covering an animal
beak – the hard, pointed part of a bird’s mouth
hide – the strong, thick skin of an animal, used for making leather
scales – one of the many very small, flat pieces that cover the skin of fish, snakes, etc.
paw – the foot of an animal that has claws or nails, such as a cat, dog, or bear
claw – one of the sharp, curved nails at the end of each of the toes of some animals and birds
thorn – a small, sharp pointed growth on the stem of a plant
petal – one of the thin soft coloured parts of a flower
horn – a hard, pointed part, usually one of a pair, on the head of cows, goats, and other animals
vegan – a person who does not eat or use any animal products, such as meat, fish, eggs, cheese, or leather
human being – a person
meerkat – a small, grey Southern African animal that sometimes sits up on its back legs
endemic – belonging to a particular area; inherent
prickly pear – type of cactus (= desert plant) that has oval fruit
paddock – a field of any size that is used for farming
render – to cause something to change in a certain way, make.
larva – the active immature form of an insect
cane – the long, hollow stems of particular plants such as bamboo
toad – a small animal, similar to a frog, that has dry, brown skin and lives mostly on land
controversial – causing disagreement or discussion
caterpillar – a small creature like a worm with many legs that eats leaves and that develops into a butterfly or other flying insect
hedgehog – small animal with spikes on its back
executive – director, someone in a high position
slug – a small animal with a soft body like a snail without a shell
forage – to go searching, esp. for food
saliva – the natural, watery liquid in the mouth that keeps it wet and helps prepare food for digestion
lineage – all the living things that are related directly to the same living thing that existed long ago
marsupials – have pouch and teat, mainly in Australia
trace – to find the origin of something
foetus – a young human being or animal before birth, after the organs have started to develop
equator – an imaginary line around the earth or another planet at an equal distance from the North Pole and the South Pole
proximity – the state of being near in space or time
scrap – to have a fight or an argument
primarily – mainly
litter – a group of animals that are born at the same time and have the same mother
rodent – a type of small mammal with sharp front teeth
Useful Collocations: Environment
Damaging the Environment
The environment is always a common topic in IELTS Writing Test, especially in Task 2. Therefore, if you can make use of the collocations below, you will easily impress the examiner with your vocabulary and thus improve your writing IELTS score to band 7+.
1. Serious environmental degradation: The process in the quality of environment changes to a worse condition.
“In some industrial zones, the production processes may result in serious environmental degradation.”
2. Irresponsible disposal of industrial waste: Discharge industrial waste without concern about the environment.
“Global warming stems from the irresponsible disposal of industrial waste.”
3. Waste treatment systems: The way to treat wastes without harming the environment.
“If factory installed waste treatment systems instead of discharging chemical wastes into rivers, water pollution could be controlled.”
4. Discharge chemical waste: to dispose of chemical waste.
“Nowadays, more and more company and industrial zones have been discharging chemical waste into rivers, causing death to many fish and other aquatic animals.”
5. Litter the street: To leave the waste paper, cans, etc. on the street.
“Residents will consider newcomers dirty and ill-mannered if they litter the street or spit gum in public places.”
6. The emission of greenhouse gases: The act of sending out gas, especially carbon dioxide or methane, that is through to trap heat above the Earth and cause the greenhouse effect.
“If countries all over the world could decrease their energy consumption, this will reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.”
7. Chemical fertilizers/weed killers: Poison used to kill unwanted plants.
“Organic farmers do not pollute the water or the soil which result from the application of chemical fertilizers and weed killers.”
8. Eco-friendly: Not harmful to the environment.
“Countries such as Japan are leading the way, for example, in developing more eco-friendly cars, buses and lorries.”
9. To be spoiled by: To be received a bad effect that it is no longer attractive, enjoyable, useful, etc.
“Several famous beaches in Vietnam have been spoiled by this lack of respect for the local environment.”
10.Contamination of land, air or water: To make land, air or water dirty or harmful by putting chemicals or poison in it.
“Contamination of land, air and water has reached alarming levels.”
11. Illegal logging and deforestation: the work for cutting down trees for commercial purpose in an illegal way
“It should not be forgotten that illegal logging in the Amazon Basin is still a major factor in climate change.”
12. Burning fossil fuels: Burning a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over million of years.
” Individuals can make a small contribution by not burning wood and other fossil fuels.”
13. long-term consequences: something that happens in the distant future as a result of a particular action or set of conditions.
“The effects of our use of fossil fuels today may last for generations, and it is almost certain to have long-term consequences for humanity.”
14. Renewable energy: Renewable energy comes from sources that can be easily replaced naturally so that there is always more available.
“Wind farms and other sources of renewable energy will help to reduce CO2 emission to an acceptable level.”
15. Environmental protection: The act of protecting the environment.
” Environmental protection is one of the most important challenges almost every country is facing.”
16. Sustainable development: The development without damaging the environment.
” The government should commit to sustainable development and the protection of the environment.”
17. To deplete natural resource: To reduce the amount of natural resource.
” Depleting natural resource is become a serious concern for the government to get deal with.”
18. Fight climate change: To prevent a permanent change in weather
“International cooperation is necessary to fight climate change.”
19. Conserve energy: To protect and prevent energy from reduction.
“Scientists in many countries are cooperating to find a method to conserve energy.”
20. Sort the daily garbage: To arrange garbage in groups according to size, type daily.
“One thing that individual can do to protect the environment is sorting the daily garbage.”
21. Dump waste: To dispose of waste in an irresponsible manner
Example: Disposal of household waste is a daunting task for local authorities. Towns and cities cannot just dump such waste and hope it will go away.
22. Toxic waste: Poisonous waste
Example: Efforts to recycle waste are only a partial solution. Meanwhile, the problem of toxic waste remains.
23. Offset carbon emissions: Pay for an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide to be saved elsewhere
Example: Some airlines have schemes now for offsetting carbon emissions.
24. Introduce green taxes: Taxes which relate to the protection of the environment
Example: Politicians should not be afraid of introducing green taxes and incentives to encourage eco-friendly design in architecture.
25. Reduce carbon footprint: reduce amount of carbon dioxide created by an activity/person/business
26. Food miles: Distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is consumed
Example: We can all reduce our carbon footprint by flying less, and reduce our food miles by buying local produce.
Climate Change and Its Consequence
27. Searing heat: extreme heat
Example: Parts of Europe which used to be cooler now experience intense, searing heat, and temperatures soar above the average every summer
28. Widespread flooding
Example: Most areas in Europe suffer widespread flooding on a regular basis.
29. Alternative energy sources
30. Hybrid car
Example: To protect the environment, people can buy a hybrid car, develop alternative energy sources for homes, solar heating for instance. and build more offshore wind farms.
31. Combat climate change
Example: It is absolutely vital that every civil plays their role in combating climate change.
32. Environmental catastrophe
Example: We may have less than a decade to avoid an environmental catastrophe on a global scale.
Other Useful Expressions/Phrases
- The deterioration in the air quality
- To curb environmental deterioration
- To destroy/degrade the environment
- To lower the demand for energy in every household
- Exhaust fumes from vehicles
- To raise the public’s ecological consciousness
- To promote environmentally-friendly technology
- To reduce the dependence on the traditional energy resources/on fossil fuels.
- To suffer from adverse effects of environmental problems
- To burn fossil fuels to generate energy
- The growing demand for fossil fuels in the world
- Renewable energy from solar, wind or water power
- Gas emissions from factories
- To alleviate environmental problems
- To contaminate the environment
- The protection of wildlife
- The biology will be seriously affected