1. a work of art/a work of music/a work of literature
Meaning: a painting, sculpture, book, play, piece of music etc
Example: Shakespeare’s plays are considered as one of the greatest works of literature in the English language.
2. the aesthetic qualities of paintings, literature and music.
Meaning: The qualities related to beauty and understanding the beauty of something.
Example: One advantage of studying the arts is that students learn to appreciate the aesthetic qualities of paintings, literature and music.
3. the portrayal of something/somebody
Meaning: the act of showing or describing something/somebody in a book, painting, play or film
Example: In the past, the portrayal of women in art was often as possessions, owned by rich men.
4. a private viewing
Meaning: an occasion when a few people are invited to look at an exhibition of paintings before it is open to the public.
Example: Paintings are sometimes considered as a form of investment, and art dealers arrange private viewings for art collectors to purchase works of value.
5. to be a connoisseur of
Meaning: an expert on matters involving the judgment of beauty, quality or skill in art or music
Example: In order to enjoy beautiful paintings, it is not necessary to be a connoisseur of works of art.
6. a priceless portrait
Meaning: a painting of a person that is extremely valuable
Example: Private art collections may sometimes include priceless portraits of kings or queens painted by famous artists.
7. to commission a work of art
Meaning: to officially ask somebody to paint a picture or compose a piece of music for you
Example: Artists in the past often relied on wealthy people to commissionpaintings or music from them.
8. an art movement
Meaning: a group of artists who share similar ideas
Example: The creative aspect of art is demonstrated by the number of art movements over the centuries – including the Impressionists, the Romantics and the Modernists.
9. performance art
Meaning: A form of art in which the artist performs something, rather than producing a physical work of art
Example: Some tourist destinations offer performance art by actors to recreate events from local history, such as battles or local legends.
10. funding for the arts
Meaning: the act of providing money for artists, writers, musicians etc
Example: Government funding for the arts encourages people of artistic ability to express their talent to the public.
11. a mixed funding model for the arts
Meaning: a model in which some money to support the arts is given by the government and some money is provided by private individuals or commercial organizations.
Example: I would argue that a mixed funding model for the arts is the best way to support artists, musicians and writers by combining public and provide funds and even donations.
12. the imposition of censorship
Meaning: the act of preventing something from being available to the public, because it is considered offensive or a political threat
Example: I believe that the imposition of censorship is sometimes necessary to protect young people from exposure to pornographic writing or images.
13. to stage a play
Meaning: to organize and present a play for people to see
Example: It is important to encourage children to be creative, for example by staging a school play or displaying their artwork on school open days.
14. a talented playwright
Meaning: a person who writes plays for the theatre
Example: Directors of theatres must encourage talented playwrights by staging their plays for theatre-goers.
15. to appeal to audiences
Meaning: to attract or interest those who go to watch a play or film.
Example: Plays which deal with contemporary social issues are likely to appeal to audiences.
16. a literature festival/a book festival
Meaning: A regular gathering of writers and readers in a particular city, perhaps every year.
Example: One way in which to attract tourists to a city is to stage an annual literature festival, and invite well-known writers to attend.
17. literary and artistic heritage
Meaning: the traditon of writing or painting that a country, city or town has had for many years, distinguishing it as an important part of its character
Example: Visitors to Britain can enjoy the rich literary and artistic heritage by going to such places as the birthplace of Shakespeare and the National Art Gallery in London.
18. to express oneself
Meaning: to communicate some idea or emotion through speech, writing, painting, music or some other form of art
Example: Schools should encourage pupils to express themselves through art, music or creative writing in order to stimulate their imagination.
19. works of literary fiction
Meaning: types of literature which describe imaginary people and events, not real ones
Example: It takes enormous creativity to write works of literary fiction, and the greatest writers are rightly considered literary geniuses.
20. a literary genius
Meaning: a person with outstanding ability in writing
Example: Although not every child will become a literary genius, it is still important for students to practice creative writing at school.
21. street musicians
Meaning: people who play a musical instrument in the street to get money from passers-by
Example: Street musicians are an entertaining feature of cultural life in many cities.
22. genres of music
Meaning: particular types or styles of music
Example: Different genres of music tend to be favoured by different age groups, with classical music more popular among the elderly.
23. to take up a musical instrument
Meaning: to start to learn to play a musical instrument
Example: Schools should encourage all those children who have an interest to take up a musical instrument.
24. live music
Meaning: music that is not recorded – it is performed at the same time as people listen to it
Example: Without funding from governments, it is doubtful whether live music
25. a concert venue
Meaning: a place where people go to listen to live music at an organized event
Example: Cities offer many cultural attractions for music-lovers, such as the Paris Opera.
26. a resident orchestra
Meaning: a large group of people who play musical instruments together in the same venue.
Example: In most cities, a resident orchestra must receive a subsidy from the local authority in order to survive financially.
27. an opera house
Meaning: a dedicated building such as a theatre or other venue, in which the performers sing while the orchestra plays the music
Example: The financial costs of running an opera house are very high, and so ticket prices to see an opera are expensive.
28. folk songs
Meaning: songs in the traditional style of a country or community
Example: Traditional folk songs are part of the cultural heritage of a nation or region.
29. popular music
Meaning: music of the type which is listened to by a large number of people, with a strong rhythm and simple tunes.
Example: It would be a pity if young people only listened to popular/pop music and had no knowledge of traditional folk songs.
30. to sing in a choir
Meaning: to sing in a group of people, for example in a church or public performance
Example: One way that schools can encourage children to enjoy music is to give them an opportunity to sing in a school choir.