1. the immune system
Meaning: the system in your body that produces substances to help it fight against infection and disease
Example: A diet lacking in vitamins and minerals will almost certainly weaken a person’s immune system.
2. a chemical preservative
Meaning: a chemical substance used to prevent food from deteriorating
Example: The juice contains no artificial/chemical preservatives, so drink it within the next two or three days.
3. artificial colo(u)ring and flavo(u)ring
Meaning: any colours or flavours added to food, in order to make it look more attractive or to enhance the flavour.
Example: Consumers today expect food to look attractive and to have a distinctive taste, so artificial colouring and flavouring is often used in the food production process.
4. food labelling
Meaning: the listing of ingredients on food packets or cans
Example: Food labelling should be clear in order for consumers to make informed choices about the food that they buy.
5. food processing
Meaning: the treatment of food in order to make it ready for sale
Example: The growth of the food processing industry has meant that most of the food that we eat is neither fresh nor locally produced.
6. shelf life
Meaning: the length of time that food can be kept, before it is too old to be sold
Example: Supermarkets throw away a lot of food, simply because its shelf life has expired and it is no longer fit for sale.
7. a food retailer
Meaning: a business which sells food to the public
Example: With the expansion of supermarkets, local food retailers have disappeared from many neighbourhoods.
8. organic food
Meaning: produced without using artificial chemicals
Example: The production of organic food causes less damage to the environment and many people also claim that it is more nutritious.
9. genetically modified (GM) food
Meaning: food made from plants that have been genetically changed, in order to produce more or in order to protect them from diseases/pests
Example: There is growing public concern over the environmental consequences of producing genetically modified food.
10. free-range eggs/free-range meat/free-range products
Meaning: related to a system in which animals are kept in natural conditions and can move around freely
Example: Customers who buy free-range products, such as eggs or chickens, often do so because they oppose factory farming.
11. food poisoning
Meaning: a stomach illness as a result of eating food containing harmful bacteria
Example: In order to prevent cases of food poisoning, local authorities must regularly inspect places in which food is prepared or sold to the public.
12. fast food chains
Meaning: groups of shops owned by the same company, serving food to the public
Example: Healthy eating means avoiding eating out at fast food chains like McDonald’s or Pizza Hut.
13. junk food
Meaning: food that is quick and easy to prepare and eat, but that is thought to be bad for your health
Example: The consumption of too much junk food is a major factor in the increase of childhood obesity.
14. a lack of calories to meet his/her energy needs
Meaning: not having enough calories in one’s diet to provide all the energy that a person uses
Example: If a vegetarian’s daily meals are not properly balanced, he or she might suffer from a lack of calories to meet his or her energy needs.
15. home-made food
Meaning: food which is prepared at home using individual ingredients
Example: In developed countries, the young generation must rediscover the art of preparing home-made food, as part of a healthy lifestyle.
16. to have a snack
Meaning: to eat a small amount of food between main meals
Example: Unless people are doing vigourous exercise, it is a bad habit tohave a snack between meals.
17. to eat a balanced diet
Meaning: to eat the correct types and amounts of food
Example: The health benefits of eating a balanced diet are obvious. Dịch đại ý
18. a vegetarian diet
Meaning: a diet with no fish or meat
Example: If everyone in the world followed a vegetarian diet, there would be no hunger or starvation.
19. a vegan diet
Meaning: a diet without any animal products, such as meat, milk or eggs
Example: Many people active in animal rights movements worldwide follow a vegan diet, because they believe that we should not exploit animals.
20. to go on a diet
Meaning: to eat less, or to eat only certain types of food in order to lose weight
Example: Many people in the West eat too much and – from time to time – have to go on a diet.
21. to follow a recipe
Meaning: to cook a meal using instructions
Example: Whether you follow a recipe or make something up as you go along, I think cooking is a very creative pastime.
22. Chinese cuisine
Meaning: A type of food that is traditional in China – you can write ‘Italian cuisine/Vietnamese cuisine’ in the same way
Example: Chinese cuisine is an important part of the traditional culture of the country.
23. a diet rich in….
Meaning: a diet which contains a lot of something
Example: A diet rich in fibre, such as dried fruits, helps to keep people healthy and active.
24. a diet low in…..
Meaning: a diet which contains very little of something
Example: To prevent obesity, people should avoid overeating and eat a diet low in fats and sugar.
25. a low-calorie diet
Meaning: a diet of food which does not produce a lot of energy [measured in calories] when you eat it
Example: Those who are overweight should follow a low-calorie diet.
26. to count calories
Meaning: to monitor the food that you eat for low calories, to control or reduce your weight
Example: Slimmers who are trying to lose weight sometimes take this very seriously and count the calories in everything they eat and drink each day.
27. to provide somebody with a healthier diet
Meaning: to give somebody a diet which is more healthy than that which they have at present
Example: Eating only fresh fruit and vegetables provides people with a healthier diet.
28. to put on weight
Meaning: to become fatter and heavier
Example: Those who wish to avoid putting on weight should avoid fatty and sugary foods.
29. a slimming club
Meaning: a group of people who join together to try to lose weight
Example: A slimming club is a good option for people who lack motivation to lose weight on their own.
30. low in fat and high in fiber
Meaning: a diet which does not contain much fat, but which contains foods which have a lot of fiber
Example: A healthy vegetarian diet is typically low in fat and high in fiber.